Henan 2

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

AGE: 21

DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 26/03/1989

PLACE OF BIRTH: Kaifeng, Henan Province

GENDER: male

ETHNICITY: Han Chinese

OCCUPATION: student

EDUCATION: At the time of the recording, the subject was in his third year at university.

AREA(S) OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS:

Subject came to live in Suzhou, Jiangsu, about eight years before the date of the recording.

OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:

He is an English major university student and has had limited exposure to native English-speaking teachers. Son of the subject in the Henan 1 sample, this subject was taught English alongside his native dialect. Both parents are English speakers, and his home life is the dominant influence on his speech. He does watch foreign films, mainly American, and these clearly have had an influence, particularly on his vowel sounds.

The text used in our recordings of scripted speech can be found by clicking here.

RECORDED BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 21/04/2010

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A

TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A

ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

I was born in Henan Province (ah) and there’s a small city called (ah) Kaifeng, and that place whi- (ah) is in the north (ah) northeast of China (ah) maybe (ah) and (ah) also in the middle of the China. (Ah, ah) When I was (ah) little, (ah) I was a small child – I seldom go outside to see the Ch- this country (ahm), but when I grow up (ah) with, with my parents I visited (ah) like Shandong Province, (ah) Jiangsu Province and (ah) Anhui Province (ah) etc. (ah) These (ah) the- these lands (ah) give me (ah) a very impressive feeling about China. That China is (ah) rare I think (ah) it is a – a rich land (ah, ah); it’s a rich of its resources and the beautiful sceneries and (ah) as we all know that (ah) there are a lot of people, and (ah) most of them are friendly (ah, ah), wherever they are. (um) An – and in China as (ah) as China is developing so – developing so fast (um) (ah, ah) many – many places are becoming (ah) I think it’s – they’re becoming more and more (ah, ah) open and (ah) they are welcome – they are all welcomed the guests from the outside world. (ah) So I think (um), I think China is now a friendly country.

TRANSCRIBED BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 21/04/2010

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A

TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A

SCHOLARLY COMMENTARY:

Short readings from the analects of Confucius

The subject now goes on to read the following abstracts from the Analects of Confucius in his own Zhongyuanhua dialect. A reading in Putonghua (Mandarin) can be heard on theChina15 sample.

KEY: A = Mandarin (Simplified); B = Mandarin (Pinyin); C = Dialect (Pinyin); D = English.

孔子: 论语 – Kǒng zǐ : lún yǔ – Kòng zī: lǔn yǔ – Confucius: Lun Yu

學而第一 – xué ér dì yī – xuè èr dǐ yí – Chapter One

A: 1-1:-  子曰: 學而時習之、不亦說乎。

B: yí – yí :-  zǐ yuē: xué ér shí xí zhī, bù yì yuè hū.

C: yī-yī :-

D: 1-1:-  The Master said: Is it not pleasure to learn, and practice what is learned time and again?

A: 1-2:- 有朋自遠方來、不亦樂乎。

B: yī-èr:-  yǒu péng zì yuǎn fāng lái, bù yì lè hū.

C: yī-èr:-

D: 1-2:-  Is it not happiness to have friends coming from distant places?

A: 1-3:-  人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎。

B: yī-sān:  rén bù zhī ér bù yùn, bù yì jūn zi hū.

C: yī-sān:

D: 1-3:-  Is it not virtue for a man to feel no discomposure when others take no note of him?

為政第二 – wéi zhèng dì èr – Fi zhen di ni – Chapter two

A: 2-2:-  子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思無邪』。

B: èr-èr:- zǐ yuē: shī sān bǎi, yī yán yǐ bì zhī , yuē: sī wú xié.

C: èr-èr:-

D: 2-2:-  The Master said: In the Book of Odes there are three hundred poems, but they may be summarized in a single sentence: Think no evil.

A: 2-7:-  子游問孝。子曰:今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬, 何 以別乎。

B: èr-qī:-  zǐ Yóu wèn xiào. zǐ yuē: jīn zhī xiào zhě, shì wèi néng yǎng. zhì wū quǎn mǎ, jiē néng yǒu yǎng; bù jìng, hé yǐ bié hū.

C: : èr-qī:-

D: 2-7:-  Zi You asked what filial piety was. The Master said: Nowadays, providing support for one’s parents is considered filial piety. But dogs and horses can also do this. If there is no respect, what is the difference?

A: 2-10:- 子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?

B: èr-shí :-  zǐ yuē: shì qí suǒ yǐ , guān qí suǒ yóu, chá qí suǒ ān. rén yān sǒu zāi? rén yān sǒu zāi?

C: èr-shí :-

D: 2-10:-  The Master said: Watch what a man does. Find out his motives. See how he takes his ease. How then can the man hide his true self? How can the man hide his true self?

Commentary

The subject was raised in Kaifeng, Henan Province, central China. Henan means “south of the (Yellow) river,” and its northern border is along the south bank of the river. The province is often called Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou, literally “central plains” or “midland,” and this name is also broadly applied to the entire North China Plain.

Henan is traditionally regarded as an important cradle of Chinese civilization and, indeed, Northern Henan, along the Yellow River, was the core area of ancient China for at least the first half of Chinese history. The two cities of Luoyang and Kaifeng each served as the capital city of a long list of dynasties.

Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao and Longshan were active in what is now northern Henan. Also, shortly after the so-called Erlitou culture, controversially identified with the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BCE), the first literate dynasty of China, the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BCE), was also centered in Henan. Their last capital, Yin, was located at the modern city of Anyang, Henan.

During the upheavals of the Zhou Dynasties (1046 -221 BCE), the capital was moved to Luoyang in 722 BCE, and Henan was subsequently divided into a variety of small states. Throughout this period, the state of Chu also held much of what is now southern Henan, the birthplace of this subject.

The capital of the Western Han Dynasty was moved to Chang’An (modern Xi’An, Shaanxi) in 206 BCE, but Luoyang again became the capital of unified China during the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 25 – 220). However, Chang’An once more became the capital during the Sui (581 – 618) and Tang (618 – 907) dynasties.

Kaifeng became the capital in the Northern Song Dynasty (960 – 1127). Under Song rule,China entered a golden age of culture and prosperity, and Kaifeng was the largest city in the world. In 1142, however, the Song Dynasty was forced to cede all of northern China, including Henan, to the Jurchen (Jin Dynasty) invaders from the north.

By this time, cultural and economic development in the Yangtze River delta Jiangnan region (modern southern Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, and Shanghai) had made that area into the new economic and cultural center of China, and Henan forever lost its pre-eminent position.

Most of Henan speaks dialects of the Mandarin group of dialects found in northern and southwestern China. Linguists put these dialects into the category of “Zhongyuan Mandarin.” The northwestern corner of Henan is an exception, where people speak Jin dialects instead. The dialects of Henan are collectively called “the Henan dialect” in popular usage, with easily identifiable stereotypical features. Zhongyuan Mandarin is considered one of the origins of Standard Mandarin.

This subject has managed to eliminate many of the usual characteristics, but the /θ/- /s/ and /ʒ/- /s/ minimal pair transpositions do crop up at times. What are most notable in this subject’s unscripted speech are two common characteristics of Mandarin speakers: the use of the definite article with common nouns, as in “the China,” and the trailing /a/ to certain final consonants, such as /d/ and /m/. A good example of this in the recording is “land-a.”

COMMENTARY BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 21/04/2010

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