Japan 15

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

AGE: 51

DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 23/06/1965

PLACE OF BIRTH: Toyohashi

GENDER: female

ETHNICITY: Japanese

OCCUPATION: English teacher

EDUCATION: bachelor’s degree

AREAS OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS: N/A

OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:

The subject started learning English in junior high school. Currently, she works with native English speakers — primarily Americans — on a daily basis.

The text used in our recordings of scripted speech can be found by clicking here.

RECORDED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 03/09/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH:

ˈkʰomɐ gɛts ɐ ˈkʰjuɚ wɛl çiəz ə ˈstʌɹi fɔ ˈju ˈsɐɾə ˈpɛɾi wɔz ə bɛtʰəˈna˞li ˈnʌɚs hu hæd bin ˈwʌ˞kɪŋ deɪli æt æn ˈɔʊl̴də d͡zʉ in ə dɪˈzʌɚtɪdə dɪsˈtɹʷɪkt ɔv zə tʰ ˈtʰɛɹɪtəɹi soʊ ʃi wʌz ˈvɛɹi ˈhæpi s tʉ stat ə njʉ d͡ʒɔb æt ə ˈsʌbʌb˺ ˈpɹaɪbɛt pɹaktis in noʊsə ˈskweɚ niə zə ˈdjʉk ˈstoʊi ˈtaʊɚ ðæt ˈeɾiə wəz mʌt͡ʃ ˈniɾə fɔ hɐ ænd mɔə tʉ laɪk˺ hɐ ˈlaɪkiŋgə ˈibn̩ so ɔ̃ ha fa˞st ˈmɔnɪŋ ʃi fɛlt͡s s t͡stɹɛst ʃi eɪt ə bɔl̴ ɔb˺ ˈpɔɹʷɪd͡ʒ t͡ʃɛkt hɐ˞sɛlf ɪn ðə ˈmiɹəɚ ænd wɑʃt hɐ˞ ɸeɪs ɪn ə ˈhʌ˞li zɛn ʃi pʊt ɑn ə pɹeɪn bə ˈjɛloʊ dɹɛs ænd ə ɸʊlɪɸʊlis ˈd͡ʒækɛt pikt ap hɐ˞ kʰit ænd ˈhɛdɪdə fɔ ˈwʌ˞kʰ

wen ʃi g̊ɑt˺ ˈðɪə ðɛ wʊz ə ˈʔumɐn wɪθ ə gʉs weɪtiŋ fɔ hɐ˞ ðə ˈʔʉmɐn geɪb ˈsæɹə aŋ ɔˈfiʃəl ˈɹɛtə fɹɔm də ˈbɛt zə ˈɹɛtə imˈpɹaɪd˺ də animal cʊd bi ˈsʌfɹɪŋ fɹʊm ɐ ɹeə fɔm ob ɸʉt ænd ˈmaʊθ dɪziz̥ wɪt͡ʃ wəz̥ sʌˈpɹaɪzɪŋ bɪkɔz ˈnɔməɾi jʉ ʔʊd ɔ̃nli ɪkˈspɛk tə si ɪn ə de ʔə dɑg ɔə g̊oʊtʰ ˈsæɾɐ wɔz ˈsɛnt͡ʃɪˈmɛtəl̴ soʊ dɪs med hɐ ɸil ˈsʌʊli fɔ zə ˈbjʉtɪfʊl bɚd̥

biˈfɔ˞ ɹʌəŋ zə ˈɪt͡ʃi gʉsʏ biˈgæn tʉ stʌɚtʰ əˈɹaʊn dɐ wəʔ ˈɔfis ə ɔfis laɪk ə luˈnætɪk wit͡ʃ med æn ˈɐnˈsæ̃niˈtʌɹi mɛs zɐ ˈgʉsɪs oʊnɚ ˈmæɹi ˈhæɹisən kɛptə ˈkɑɹɪŋ ˈkʰomɐ ˈkʰomɐ wɪt͡ʃ ˈsæɾə soʊt wɔz æn ɑdə t͡ʃɔɪs fɔ˞ɹɐ neɪm ˈkɔmɐ wʌz̥ stɹɔŋ ænd˺ çjʉʒ soʊ ˈʔɪt ˈʔʊd˺ teɪk ˈsʌm fɔʊs tʉ ˈtɚp hɚ bʌt ˈsaɾɐ hɑd ə ˈdifɹɛnt aɪˈdiɚ ɸʌstə ʃi tɹaɪd˺ ˈd͡ʒɛntɹi ˈstɹoʊkɪŋ hɚ gʉs ˈlowɚ bæk wið hɐ pam zɛn ʃˈsɪŋgɪŋ ə ˈt͡ʃʉn tʉ hɐɚ ˈfaɪnəli ʃi ædˈmɪnɪstədə ˈiθɚ

hɐ ˈʔɛfɔt wə nɑtʊ ˈfʌ˞ˌtʰaɪl̴ ɪnoʊ taɪm ʃtə gʉs bɪˈgæn tu ˈtaɪə soʊ ʃi ˈsaɾa wɔz eɪbl tʊ hɔl̴d ɔn tʉ ˈkʰoma ænd geɪb hɐ ə ɹiˈɹæksɪŋ bæθ wʌn ˈsæɾɐ hæd ˈmænɛd͡ʒ tʉ beɪð̥ də gʉs ʃi waɪpt hɐ ɑf wis ə cɹoʊð ænd˺ ɹeɪd hɚ ɔ̃ hə ɹaɪt saɪt zɛn ˈsæɹɐ cɔ̃ˈfɚmd zə bɛtsə daɪgˈnoʊsis ˈɔlmʌʊst ɪˈmidiətɹʷi ʃi ɾiˈmɛmbɚdə æn iˈfɛktɪv ˈtɹʷitʰment˺ ðæt ɹiˈkwaɪɚ hɚ tʉ meʒə aʊtʰ ə lɑt ɔv ˈmɛdisn̩ ˈsæɾɐ ˈwɔənd˺ dæt˺ dis coʊs ɔv ˈtɹʷitmɛnt maɪt bi ɪkˈspɛnsiʔ ˈizə faɪb ɔə siks taɪms də coʊs əb pe pɛniˈsilin ʌɪ ˈkʰjænt iˈmad͡ʒin ˈpeɪŋ soʊ mʌt͡ʃ bʌtə ˈmisɛzə ˈhaɹisə̃ ʌ mɪljɔ̃ˈʔɛnɚ ˈrɔɪjə θoʊt ɪt wɔz ə feə pɹaɪs fɔɹə kjɚɹ

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 16/09/2016

ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

I live in Toyohashi City, near Nagoya City, in middle of Japan. Toyohashi City is a small city — not so exciting — but I like Toyohashi City very much. Toyohashi City is good for raising children because there are so many parks around here, so children enjoy playing outside. And I have two children. Both of them are teenager. I’m — lately I’m having hard time handling with child — handling with two children. But I’m happy they’re … nice? And they grown up — uh- ve- really well.

[Subject speaks in Japanese]: 最近フラダンスを始めました。フラダンスは日本では中高年が楽しんでいるダンスですが、最近仲間に入れてもらってとても楽しんでいます。

[English translation: I have just started taking hula dance lessons lately. In Japan, hula dance is popular for old people. But I joined and really enjoy it.]

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 13/09/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

a̤ɪ lib ɪn tojohaʃ ˈsɪti niə ˈnagojɐ ˈsɪti ɪn ˈmidl̴ ɔv ʒapan tojohaʃ ˈsɪti ɪz ɐ smɔl ˈsɪti nɑt soʊ ɛkˈsaɪtɪŋ bʌt aɪ laɪk tojohaʃ sɪɾi bɛɹi mʌt͡ʃ tojoha ˈsɪti ɪz gʉd fɔ ˈɹeɪzɪŋ t͡ʃɪldɹɛn bikɔ zɛɚ ɹɑ soʊ ˈmɛni paks əˈɹʌn hiɚ sə ˈt͡ʃɪldɹɛn ɛnd͡ʒɔɪ pɹeɪŋ gaʊtsaɪtʰ ænd aɪ hɑv tʉ t͡ʃɪl̴ˈdɹɛn boʊs əv dɛ̃ a˞ ˈtʰineɪˈd͡ʒʌ a̤ɪm ˈleɪt˺lʷi a̤ɪm ˈhabɪŋ hɑ˞d˺ taɪm ˈhandəɾɪŋ wiθ t͡ʃɪld ˈhandəɾɪŋ wɪθ tʉ ˈt͡ʃɪl̴dɹɛn bʌt aɪm ˈhɑpi l ˈzeɪɑ̰ naɪs ænd˺ zeɪ gɹoʊn ˈʌpʰ bɛ ˈɹili wɛl̴

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 16/09/2016

SCHOLARLY COMMENTARY:

The subject frequently inserts a neutral vowel after coda consonants (ex: [ˈɔʊl̴də] “old”). This happens more often following voiced consonants than unvoiced consonants, and effectively does not happen in the subject’s unscripted speech. It is likely that these neutral vowels after codas are an attempt by the subject to ensure that she is pronouncing coda consonants, which she does sometimes drop, particularly nasal consonants (ex: [dɛ̃] “them”).

“R” onsets are usually pronounced [ɹ], though in unstressed syllables they are occasionally replaced with [ɾ] (ex: [ˈsæɾɐ] “Sara”) or [l] (ex: [ˈsʌʊli] “sorry”). Sometimes onset “r” is labialized, as in [ˈtɹʷitmɛnt] “treatment.” This appears to happen mostly in complex onsets. In codas, “r” is most often pronounced as a rhotic vowel, or a vowel followed by a rhotacized schwa (ex: [biˈfɔ] “before” [dɪˈzʌɚtɪdə] “deserted”), though it is also common for the “r” to simply be dropped, or for the vowel to by followed by a non-rhotacized schwa (ex: [ˈmɔnɪŋ] “morning” [niə] “near”).

A couple of interesting “r” moments:

There are a couple of cases where an onset “r” follows a vowel, and the preceding vowel is rhotacized while the “r” onset is pronounced as [l] (ex: [bɛtʰəˈna˞li] “veterinary” [ˈhʌ˞li] “hurry”).

In a couple of words with “r” at the end of a complex onset, this “r” sound appears to have been moved to the coda, so the vowel is pronounced with rhoticity and no preceding sound meant to represent “r” (ex: [stʌɚtʰ] “strut” [ˈtɚp] “trap”).

In onsets, “l” is pronounced for the most part as [l], though [ɹ] can also been heard fairly often, and [ɾ] once; usually it is [l]. In codas, [l] is only pronounced as [l] or [l̴] — perhaps with [l] being used somewhat more often in codas than one would expect to see in General American English.

While the subject does sometimes pronounce the /th/ sounds as [θ] and [ð] (ex: [ˈmaʊθ] “mouth” [ðæt] “that”), she also sometimes pronounces them as [s] (ex: [noʊsə] “north”), [z] (ex: [zɛɚ] “there”), or [d] (ex: [dɪs] “this”). While the use of [d] as a substitute for [ð] might lead one to expect [t] to be used as a substitute for [θ], this has not been observed. Substituting [d] or [z] for [ð] is more common than substituting [s] for [θ].

“Kit” words are often, but not always, pronounced with an [i] vowel, rather than [ɪ] (ex: [pɛniˈsilin] “penicillin”).

[v] is often, but not always, substituted with [b] (ex: [geɪb] “gave” [bɛtʰəˈna˞li] “veterinary”).

“W”s appearing before [u], and [ʊ] are sometimes dropped, and a glottal stop is added before the vowel (ex: [ˈʔumɐn] “woman” [ˈʔʊd˺] “would,”). With regard to the initial vowel in “woman,” this appears to be peculiar to this word. In other words where General American would use the [ʌ] vowel, the subject primarily uses [ʌ] (ex: [mʌt͡ʃ] “much” [bʌt] “but”).

[f] is sometimes pronounced [ɸ] (ex: [ɸeɪs] “face”). This happens exclusively with initial [f] sounds.

Stress is largely as one would expect from a native English speaker, which is not surprising as the subject works as an English teacher and is regularly in the company of native English speakers. However, there are a few instances where stress is placed on the wrong syllable (ex: [dɪsˈtɹʷɪkt] “district”), or more often, where every syllable in a word bears equal stress (ex: [animal] “animal”).

COMMENTARY BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 17/09/2016

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