Japan 16

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

AGE: 68

DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 10/02/1948

PLACE OF BIRTH: Tahara, Aichi

GENDER: male

ETHNICITY: Japanese

OCCUPATION: retired

EDUCATION: high school

AREAS OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS:

The subject lived in California (in the United States) for about six months when he was 34 years old.

OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:

The subject started studying English in junior high school and has been self-teaching his whole life, listening to English-language radio in Japan, which uses American English. Currently he takes English conversation lessons with native speakers, mostly American.

The text used in our recordings of scripted speech can be found by clicking here.

RECORDED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 07/09/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH:

wɛl̴ çiɚ də ˈstʌɹi fə ˈju ˈseɪɹə ˈpɛɹi βʊz ʌ ˈvɛtɚɹɪˌnɛ̃ɹi ˈnɚ̟s ˈwi hɛd bɪn ˈwɚ̟kʰɪŋ ˈdeɪli ætʰə æn ˈɔl̴d d͜zʉ ɪn ə dəˈʒɚ̟tɪdz dɪstɹɪkʰtʰ ʌv də ˌtɛɹɪtəˈɹi so ˈʃi wəz ˈvəɹɪ ˈhæpi tu sɑ˞ tə ˈnu d͡ʒɑb̥ atɐ ˈsʉpɚ̟bm pɹavɛtʰ ˈpɹʌktɪs ɪn ˈnʌʊθ ˈskβɛɚ ˈniə ðə dʉkʰ stɹitʰ tawɚ ˈðɑtʰ ˈɛɹiə βʊz mʌt͡ʃ ˈniɹɚ fɔ hɚ æn ˈmɔ˞ tu hɚ ˈlaɪkʰɪŋ ˈivən soʊ oʊn ɚ ˈfɚ̟s mɔ˞ˈnɪŋ ʃi fɛl̴t stɹɛst ʃi ˈeɪtʰ ə bɔl̴ baʊl̴ əvə pʌɹɪt͡ʃ ˈt͡ʃɛkt hɚsɛl̴f ɪn ðə ˈmɪɚ ænd ˈwʌʃtə hɚ̟ ˈfeɪs in ə ˈhʌ˞ɹi ðɛn ˈʃi pʉt ʔɔn ə pleɪn ˈjeloʊ ˈdɹɛs æ̃nd ə flis ʒæˈkɛtʰ ˈpɪksʌp hɚ̟ kʰ kitʰ æn ˈhɛdɪd fɔ˞ βɚ̟kʰ

ˈwɛ̃n ʃi gɑt˺ ˈðɛɚ dɛ˞ βʊz ə ˈβʊmən βɪð ə ˈgus ˈβɛtɪŋ fɔ hɚ də ˈβʊmən geɪv ˈseɹɐ æ̃n ˈɔfˈʃəl̴ lɛtʰɚ fɹʊm də vɛtʰ ðə ˈlɛtɚ ĩˈplaɪd̥ ðɑt˺ θi ˈæ̃nɪməl̴ kʊd bi ˈsʌfɹɪŋ fɹʌm ə ɹeɚ fɹʌʊ ˈɹeɪə fɔm ʌv ˈfʊtʰ æ̃n ˈmaʊθ dɪˈziz̥ βɪt͡ʃ βʌz səˈpɹaɪˈzɪŋ bikɔzə ˈnʌ˞məli ˈjʉ βʊd˺ ˈoʊnliə ɪkˈspɛk˺ tʉ siːtʰ inə ˈdag ʊɚ ɹə goʊtʰ ˈsɛ˞ɹə βəz sɛʔ ˈsɛ̃ntɪmɛ̃nˈtʌl̴ sʌʊ ˈðɪs meɪd ˈhɝ fil̴ ˈsɔɹi fʊ˞ ðə ˈbjʉtɪfʊl̴ bɚ̟d

bifˈʊə lɒŋ dæt ˈit͡ʃi gʉs biæn tu sɑɚ ˈstɹʌtʰ əˈɹaʊn ðə ˈɑvɪs laɪk ə luˈnætʰɪkʰ ˈwɪt͡ʃ meɪd ʔɛn ˈʌnsɛʔ s̩ ˈʌnˈseɪnɪtʰtʰɛɹi ˈmɛs ðə ˈgʉs oʊnɚ ˈmeɹi ˈhɛɹɪsn̩ kɪptʰ ˈkʰɔlɪŋ ˈkʰoʊmə ˈkʰoʊmɐ wit͡ʃ ˈsɛɹə θɔtʰ wʌz ʔɛn ʔo ˈʔɑʊd ˈt͡ʃɔɪs fɚɹə neɪm ˈkʰʊmɐ βʊz ˈsɹɑŋ ænd çjʉd͡ʒ̊ soʊ ʔɪt βʊd tek ˈsʌm fʌ˞s tʉ tɹʌpʰə hɚ̟ bʌt ˈseɪɹə həd ə ˈdɪfɹənt aɪˈdiə ˈfɪ˞st ʃi tɹaɪd ˈd͡ʒɛntəli stɚɹəɹoʊˈkʰɪŋ ðə ˈgʉs d͜zə ˈloɚ bækʰ wɪð ɚ ˈpam ðɛn ˈsɪŋgɪŋ ʔə ˈtjʉn tʉ ˈhɚ fʌɪnəli ʃi ʔadəˈmɪnɪstɚd̥ ˈiθɚ

hɚ ˈʔɛfʌʊt βɚ̟ nɒtʰ ˈfjutaɪl̴ ɪ̃ ˈnoʊ taɪm ðə ˈgus biˈgæ̃n tʉ tajɚ̟ so ˈseɹɐ βʊz ˈeɪbl tʉ ˈhʌl̴d ˈʔɑntʉ ˈkʰʌmə æ̃nd ˈgiv çɪ˞ ə rɪˈlæksɪŋ ˈbæθ ˈwʌ̃nˈsɛɹɐ hæd˺ ˈmænəd͡ʒɪtʰ tʰʉ ˈbeɪðə ˈgʉs ʃi ˈwʌɪpt hɚ̟ ʌf βɪð ə ˈklɑθ ænd ˈleɪdə hɚ̟ ɔn hɚ ˈɹʌt˺ ˈsaɪd̥ dɛn ˈsɛɹɐ kʰə̃ˈfɚ̟md˺ ðə ˈvɛts daɪˈægˈnoʊsɪs ˈɔl̴mɔst ɪˈmidiətəli ʃi ɹɪˈmɛmbɚ̟d æn ɪˈfɛktɪv tɹɪtʰmɛntʰ ðatʰ ɹɪˈkwaɪɚd hɚ tʉ ˈmɛʒɚ aʊt ʌ ˈlʌt ʌv ˈmɛdɪˈsn̩ ˈsɛɹɐ βɔ˞ndə ðʌt˺ ˈðɪs kʰɔ˞s ʌv ˈtɹitmɛntʰ maɪtʰ bi ɛkˈspɛnˈsɪv̥ ˈʔaɪðɚ ˈfaɪv ɔɚ ˈsɪks ˈtaɪms ðə kʰoʊst ʌv pɛˈnɪsəlɪn aɪ ˈkæntʰ ɪˈmɛʒɪn ˈpeɪŋə so mʌt͡ʃ bʌt ˈmɪsəz ˈhɛɹɪsn̩ ə̃ ˈmɪljəˌneɚ ˈlɔjɚ θɑtʰ ʔit βʊz ə ˈfeɪɚ ˈpɹaɪs fɚɹə kʰjuɚ

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 08/10/2016

ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

I was born and brought up in Tahara City. I began studying English when I was 16. My first encounter of English was at that time. It sounded exotic, so I instantly became in love, to be fond of English, especially English conversation.

[Subject speaks in Japanese]: 私が英語と遭遇したのは16歳の時ですけれども発音が日本語と全く違うと、いうことに驚きを得まして、さっそくきにいって勉強をしだすようになりました。

[English translation: My first encounter with English was when I was 16 years old. Because the difference of the pronunciation between Japanese and English was very exotic, I decided to study English, and I immediately liked it.]

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 14/09/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

ʔaɪ βʌz ˈbɚ̃n æn ˈbɹoʊt ʌpʰ in tɐˈhɑɹɑ sɪtʰi ʔaɪ bɪˈgæn ˈstʌdɪŋ ˈɪŋglɪʃ wɛn aɪ wʌz sɪkstin maɪ fɚ̟st ɛŋˈkaʊntɚ̟ ʌv ˈɪŋglɪʃ βʊz̥ at˺ ðɐt˺ ˈtaɪm it˺ ˈsaʊdɪd̥ ɪgˈzɑtɪkʰ soʊ aɪz ˈɪnsʌntəli bɪˈkeɪm m̩ ˈlʌv̥ tʰʉ bi ˈfɒnd ʌv ˈɪŋlɪʃ ʔɪˈspɛʃəli ˈɪŋgləʃ ˈkʰæ̃nvɚˈseɪʃʊn

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 08/10/2016

SCHOLARLY COMMENTARY:

In the majority of appearances of the letter “w” the subject pronounces it [β]. It is, however, unlikely that this is an accent feature in English, and is probably simply a feature of the individual’s speech in general. The same sound can be heard when the subject speaks Japanese.

Although the subject generally navigates the frequent consonant clusters in English very well, he does insert a schwa in the middle of [tl] clusters (ex: [ɪˈmidiətəli] “immediately”). The subject also tends to insert schwas at the ends of consonant final words – particularly those ending with voiced consonants (ex: [bikɔzə] “because”).

The subject has no switching or mixing of [ɹ] and [l] sounds, and generally pronounces them exactly as one would expect from a speaker of American English. He does, however, occasionally drop the rhoticity from vowels preceding “r” codas.

The subject’s rhotic schwa sounds are often – though not exclusively – advanced in placement (represented as [ɚ̟]).

“Kit” words are regularly pronounced with an [i] vowel, though [ɪ] can also be heard, as well as many sounds that fall between the two.

Words that American English would normally pronounce with an [æ] vowel can occasionally be heard with different sounds, including [a], [ɑ], [ʌ], and [ɛ], but these do not appear reliably or frequently enough to establish a pattern.

While the subject has largely correct stress assignment, there are a few instances where he assigns stress incorrectly within a word (ex: [luˈnætʰɪkʰ] “lunatic”), assigns equal stress to every syllable, or designates extra main-stressed syllables beyond what the word actually has (ex: [daɪˈægˈnoʊsɪs] “diagnosis”).

COMMENTARY BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 08/10/2016

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