Liaoning 3

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

AGE: 18

DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 01/11/1992

PLACE OF BIRTH: Jinzhou, Liaoning Province

GENDER: female

ETHNICITY: Han Chinese

OCCUPATION: student

EDUCATION: university

AREAS OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS:

Subject was in Suzhou, Jiangsu, for seven months prior to the date of the recording. She also spent much time with her grandparents in Taizhou,also in Jiangsu Province.

OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:

The subject was raised in Jinzhou and would, therefore, have grown up speaking the local dialect at school. However, both of her parents came from Taizhou in Jiangsu Province and would, therefore, have spoken a sub-dialect of Jianghuaihua. (See Jiangsu 11 for a good example of Taizhouhua.)

The text used in our recordings of scripted speech can be found by clicking here.

RECORDED BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 06/04/2011

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A

TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A

ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

My hometown, Jinzhou, lies in northeast of China. The city is known for its im- important place. It’s the brid- bridge combine no – north of China and northeast of China. In Ming Dynasty, the Qing army spend a large number of equipments to attack Jinzhou. In 1948, the battle of Liaoshen also broke – ou – broke out here. Through the two, ah, famous battles, we can know Jinzhou plays an important role in Chinese history. My family’s history is a bit complicated. My parents was Jiangsu people by nature. But my father is a soldier, so my mother and I followed my father from Jiangsu Province to Liaoning Province. On account of, hmm, my father’s occupation, I was grown up in a strict environment. I studied English since I was nine. It’s a charming language and I like it. [The subject now goes on to read abstracts from the Analects of Confucius in her own Jinzhouhua Mandarin dialect. (See the detailed commentary below.) She was unable provided a pinyin transliteration. A reading in pure Putonghua (Mandarin) can be heard on the Hebei 1 sample, and careful comparison will point up slight tonal differences.]

TRANSCRIBED BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 12/07/2013

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A

TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A

SCHOLARLY COMMENTARY:

SHORT READINGS FROM THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS

KEY: A = Mandarin (Simplified); B = Mandarin (Pingyin); C = Dialect (Pingyin); D = English.

孔子: 论语 – Kǒng zǐ : lún yǔ – Kon zi: len yu – Confucius: Lun Yu

 

學而第一 – xué ér dì yī – Xué ér dì yī – Chapter One

A: 1-1:-       子曰: 學而時習之、不亦說乎。

B: yī-yī :-    zǐ yuē: xué ér shí xí zhī, bù yì yuè hū.

C: yī-yī :-

D: 1-1:-       The Master said: Is it not pleasure to learn, and practice what is learned time and again?

A: 1-2:-       有朋自遠方來、不亦樂乎。

B: yī-èr:-     yǒu péng zì yuǎn fāng lái, bù yì lè hū.

C: yī-èr:-

D: 1-2:-       Is it not happiness to have friends coming from distant places?

A: 1-3:-       人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎。

B: yī-sān:    rén bù zhī ér bù yùn, bù yì jūn zi hū.

C: yī-sān:

D: 1-3:-       Is it not virtue for a man to feel no discomposure when others take no note of him?

為政第二 wéi zhèng dì èr – wéi zhèng dì ér – Chapter two

A: 2-2:-       子曰:「詩三百,一言以蔽之,曰:『思無邪』。

B: èr-èr:-     zǐ yuē: shī sān bǎi, yī yán yǐ bì zhī , yuē: sī wú xié.

C: èr-èr:-

D: 2-2:-       The Master said: In the Book of Odes there are three hundred poems, but they may be summarised in a single sentence: Think no evil.

A: 2-7:-       子游問孝。子曰:今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養;不敬,  何 以別乎。

B: èr-qī:-     zǐ yóu wèn xiào. zǐ yuē: jīn zhī xiào zhě, shì wèi néng yǎng. zhì wū quǎn mǎ, jiē néng yǒu yǎng; bù jìng, hé yǐ bié hū.

C: : èr-qī:-

D: 2-7:-       Zi You asked what filial piety was. The Master said: Nowadays, providing support for one’s parents is considered filial piety. But dogs and horses can also do this. If there is no respect, what is the difference?

A: 2-10:-     子曰:「視其所以,觀其所由,察其所安。人焉叟哉?人焉叟哉?

B: èr-shí :- zǐ yuē: shì qí suǒ yǐ , guān qí suǒ yóu, chá qí suǒ ān. rén yān sǒu zāi? rén yān sǒu zāi?

C: èr-shí :-

D: 2-10:-     The Master said: Watch what a man does. Find out his motives. See how he takes his ease. How then can the man hide his true self? How can the man hide his true self?

COMMENTARY

This is nicely strong accent and should be compared to the accents in the Liaoning 1 sample and also the Jiangsu 11 sample to get a good idea of just how the native dialects influence the pronunciation of English. The confusion of the minimal pairs /v/ and /w/ is more common in Jiangsu than it is in the north and can be heard here in “vet,” for example.

The Jinzhou dialect is a sub-dialect of the Dalian dialect, which belongs to Deng-Lian Area of the Lai language. It is spoken on the Liaodong Peninsula, and shares many similarities with the Qingdao dialect spoken on the Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula) across Bohai Strait; hence the name Jiao Liao Mandarin. Note that the First Tone in Dalianhua is a falling tone, not a high-level tone as in Mandarin. The Dalian dialect also has many loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting the history of foreign occupation in this area.

The subject’s hometown, Jinzhou, is strategically situated in the “Liaoxi Corridor,” which is the main land transportation route between North China and Northeast China. The city is also China’s northernmost seaport and the coastal economic centre of West Liaoning on the northwestern shore of the Bohai Sea. Because of its strategic position, the area was constantly changing hands during the dynastic wars between the Qin (221-206 BCE) and Tang (618-907 CE) dynasties.

Historically, Jinzhou is more than 1,000 years old and came into existence during the Liao Dynasty (916-1127 CE). The founders of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) who came from Manchuria (modern Northeast China) fought a decisive battle here in 1641, totally defeating the Ming army.

In the 20th century, Jinzhou again witnessed a decisive battle between Communist People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army (NRA) during the Chinese Civil War. On October 15, 1948, the PLA smashed the NRA defences and opened up the key north China Plain to the forces of Mao Zedong.

Modern Jinzhou has a wide range of industries, including petrochemistry, metallurgy, textiles, pharmacy, and building materials. It is also the headquarters of the 40th Group Army of the People’s Liberation Army, one of the three group armies in the Shenyang Military Region, which are responsible for defending China’s northeastern borders with Russia and North Korea.

Liaoning contains one of the most important palaeontological sites in the world. In 1996, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation, was discovered here. Since then, many groundbreaking finds have been made here, including the earliest flower, placental mammal, and marsupial, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position. In Jinzhou itself, fossil-bearing rocks, including the Yixian Formation, are exposed and a genus of Early Cretaceous birds has been named Jinzhouornis after the city.

COMMENTARY BY: Bill McCann

DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 12/07/2013

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