Japan 13

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BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

AGE: 31

DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 11/04/1985

PLACE OF BIRTH: Toyokawa, Aichi

GENDER: female

ETHNICITY: Japanese

OCCUPATION: English teacher

EDUCATION: bachelor’s degree

AREAS OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS:

Subject lived in the United States (West Virginia) for one year while in university.

OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:

Subject started learning English in junior high school.

The text used in our recordings of scripted speech can be found by clicking here.

RECORDED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 11/09/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH:

wɛl̴ ˈçiəz ə sɔɪ fə jɨʊ ˈsæɹə ˈpʰɛɹi wʌ̝z ə ˈvɛtʰə̃ɹi nɚs ɸʉ hæd bin ˈwɚkʰɪn ˈdɛli ʔæt an ʔɑl̴d˺ zʉ ʔɪn ʌ dɪˈzɚɾɛd˺ ˈdɪsɹɪkt ʌv dɚ ˈtʰɛɹɪtəɹi soʊ ʃi wəz ˈvɛɹɪi ˈhæpi tʉ ˈstɑ˞t˺ ʔʌ njy d͡ʒɑb˺ ʔæt˺ ʌɚs s sʌpɚb˺ ʌn ˈpɹaɪvɛt˺ ˈpɹæktɪ̰s ɪnə nɔθ skwɛ˞ niɚ də dʌkʰ sɹit toʊʌ˞ ˈtaʊɚ də ˈeɹiə wʌz mʌt͡ʃ ˈniɚɹə foʊ hɐ˞ ɛ̃n mɔ tʉ hɐ˞ ˈlaɪkʰɪŋ ˈivɪn soʊ ə ɑn hɚ fɚst ˈmɔ˞nɪŋ ʃi fɛl̴t ˈsɹɛst ʃi eɪt˺ ʔʌ bʌʊl̴ ɔv ˈpʰoʊɹəɪt͡ʃ tt͡ʃɛkt hɐɚsɛl̴f ɪn ə ˈmɪɾɚ æ̃n wʌʃt hɐ˞ feɪs ɪn ə ˈhʌɹi ðɛn ˈʃi pʏt˺ aʊn ʃi pʊɾɑn ʌ pleɪn ˈjɛl̴oʊ dɹɛs æn ʌ flis ˈd͡ʒækɛt pɪkt ap˺ hɐ˞ kɪt˺ æn ˈhɛdɪd fə ˈwʌ˞kʰ

wɛn ˈʃi gʌ ˈdɛɚ dɛɚ w̰ʌz ɑ̃ ˈwʊmən wɪð̥ ʌ gʉs ˈweɪɾɪn fɔ hɐ˞ ðɛ ˈwɯmən geɪ ˈsælə ɑn ˈɑfɪʃəl̴ ˈlɛɾɚ fɹʌm də ˈvɛt də ˈlɛɾɚ ɪmˈplaɪd dæt˺ ðə̰ di ˈænɪml̴̩ kʰʊd˺ bi ˈsʌfəl̴lɪŋ fɹɔm ʌ ɹeɪɚ ˈfoəm f ʌv ˈfʊtʰ ˈæ̃n ˈmaʊθ ɪˈziz wɪt͡ʃ wʌz̥ səˈpɹaɪzɪŋ biˈkʰəz ˈnɑməli jʉ ʔʊd ˈɑ̃nli ɛkˈspɛk˺ tʉ si ɪt ɪnə dɑg̊ ɔɚ ˈgoʊtʰ ˈsalə wʊz ˈsɛntɪˈmɛntəl̴ ɪ̃n dɪs meɪd˺ hɐ˞ fil̴ ˈsɑli fə̰ ˈsɑɹi fɔɚ də ˈbjɨɾɪfl̴ ˈbʌ˞d˺

bifɔ ˈlɑŋ ðɜ ˈɪt͡ʃi ˈʔɪt͡ʃi ˈgʉs biˈgæn ty sɹʌt˺ stɹʌt˺ ʌ̰ əˈɹʌn ði ˈɑfɪs laɪkʰ ə lʌʔ ˈlʌnətɪkʰ wɪt͡ʃ meɪd ʌn ʌ̰nˈsænɪ ˈsænɪtəlḭ ˈsanitəɹḭ mɛs ðə ˈgʉss ˈʌʊnɚ ˈmæɹi ˈhæɹɪsen kʰɛpθ ˈkʰʌlɪŋ ˈkʰoʊmɐ ˈkʰʊmɐ wit͡ʃ ˈsælə θoʊt˺ wʌz an ɑ̥ ˈt͡ʃʌɪs fɔ ʌ˞ ˈneɪm ˈkʰoʊmə wʌz ˈstɹɑŋ æ̃nd˺ ˈçjuʒ sʌʊ ˈʔɪʔʊd˺ teɪkʰ sʌm fɔ˞s tʉ tʰɹæpʰ hɚ bʌt˺ ˈsæləʊ hædə dɪfɹɛn ʔɪʔ aɪˈdiə fɚst ˈʃi tɹaɪd˺ ˈd͡ʒɛnt˺li ˈstɹʌʊkɪŋ ðə̰ ˈgʉst͡s ˈloʊɚ ˈbækʰ wɪθ ˈhɐ˞ɹə pal̴m æ̃n ʔʌˈdɛn ˈsɪŋgɪŋ ʌ ˈtʊ˞n tʉ hɐ ˈfaɪnəli ʃi ædəˈmɪnɪstɚd̥ ˈɛðɚ

hɐ˞ ˈɛfɔʊts wəɚ nɑt˺ fʌ taɪ fʌˈtaɪl̴ ɪ̃ noʊ taɪm də gʉs biˈgæn tʉ ˈtaɪɚ sʌʊʃ ˈsalə wʊz eɪbəl̴ tʉ hɑl̴d ɒn tʉ ˈkʰɑmɐ æ̃n gḭv hɐ˞ ʌ ˈɹʷæksɪŋ bæθ wʌns ʃˈsaɾə hæd˺ məˈneɪd͡ʒ̥tʰ tʰy ˈbæθ ðə ˈgʉs ʃi ˈwaɪpt hɐ̰˞ ˈɑf wɪð ʔʌ ˈkʰlʌʊθ æ̃n ˈleɪd˺ hɐ˞ ˈɑn hɐ̰˞ lˈɹaɪt˺ saɪ dɛn ˈsalɐ cɔ̃ˈfɚmd̥ də ˈvɛts ˈdaɪəgnoʊsː ˈɑl̴moʊst ɪˈmɪdɪɐt˺li ʃi ɹɪˈmɛmbɚd ʔɑn ɪˈfɛkʰtɪv t͡ʃɹit˺mɛnt dætʰ ɹɪˈkwaɪəd hɐ˞ tʰy ˈmɛʒɚ aʊt˺ ʌ ˈlɑɾʌv ˈmɛdɪsɪn ˈsalə ˈwʌɚnd̥ ʔʌ dæt˺ dɪs kʰɔɚs ʌv ˈtɹit˺mɪnt˺ maɪt˺ bi ɛkˈspɛnsɪv ˈiðɚ ˈfaɪv ʊə ˈsɪks taɪms də ˈkʰɑst ʌv pʰəˈnɪsəlɪ̰̃ aɪ kæ̃ntʰ iˈmʌʒɪn pʰeɪŋ soʊ mʌt͡ʃ bʌt˺ ˈmɪsəz̥ ˈhaɹɪsn̩ ʌ ˈmɪljoʊnɛɚ ˈloʊjɚ θʌʊt˺ ʔɪt˺ ʔwʊz ʌm ˈfɛɚ pɹaɪs foʊ ə ˈkʰjɚ̰

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 02/10/2016

ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

I was born in Toyokawa, Aichi, um, in Japan. Um, I’ve been studying, uh, English for, uh, more than 15 years. Uh, I, I studied in America, uh, for one year, yeah; I stayed with my host family for five months, and after that I, I stayed by myself at the apartment. [laughs] Hmm, I made lots of friends there. I had a really good time there. I would love to go back there. [laughs] I’m teaching English now; I’m really happy with my job. [laughs]

[Subject speaks in Japanese]: 今まで英語を勉強してきて、海外の文化とか言語にすごく興味を持って、今も英語の以外に中国語を勉強していたりだとか、海外の友達に色々なお話を聞いて、また旅行に興味を持ったりしています。これからもいろいろと海外について勉強して、仕事にも活かしていきたいなと考えています。

[English translation: Since I studied English from a young age, I’ve become interested in other countries’ cultures and languages a lot. For example, I started to study Chinese too and travel overseas. I would like to continue learning about other countries more for my job too.]

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 01/10/2016

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:

ˈaɪ wəz bɔ˞n ɪn tʰʌjʌʊkʰawa ˈaɪt͡ʃi ʌm ɪn d͡ʒəˈpæn ʌn aɪv ˈbɪn ˈstʌdɪŋ ʌ ˈɪnglɪʃ fɔ˞ ʌ mɔ ðən ˈfɪftin ˈjiəz̥ ʌn aɪ̰ aɪ ˈstʌdɪd ɪn ʌˈmɛɹɪkʰɐ ʌ fɔ ˈwʌn jiɚ jæ̰ a̰ɪ ˈsteɪd̥ wɪθ maɪ ˈhʌs ˈfæ̃məli fɔ faɪv ˈmʌns æ̃n ˈæftɚ ðæt˺ ʔaɪ aɪ ˈsteɪd baɪ maɪˈsɛl̴f æt˺ ðə əˈpɑ˞t˺mɪnt˺ n aɪ meɪd˺ ˈlɑts ʌv ˈfɹɛnz ðɛɚ aɪ ˈhæd ʌ ˈɹɪɹi gʊd˺ taɪm ˈdɛɚ aɪ ʔʊd˺ ˈlʌv ˈty goʊ bæk˺ dɛɚ ʔaɪm ˈtit͡ʃɪŋ ˈɪŋglɪʃ naʊ aɪm ˈhæpʰi ˈwɪθ maɪ ˈd͡ʒab

TRANSCRIBED BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 02/10/2016

SCHOLARLY COMMENTARY:

The diphthong in “goat” words ([oʊ] in General American) is often pronounced [ʌʊ], though [oʊ] is used more often (ex: [ˈstɹʌʊkɪŋ] “stroking”). Furthermore, the subject uses these sounds in a number of other words, with a similar level of variation. For example, the word “thought” appears twice in the passage. The first time, the subject pronounces it [θoʊt], and the second time [θʌʊt]. I suspect these errors may have something to do with orthography, as the non-“goat” words the subject pronounces in this way are all spelled “o” or “ou.”

Several times, the subject pronounces “r” in an onset as [l] (ex: [ˈsælə] “sara”). It bears noting that the vast majority of these instances are in the word “Sara.” Still, more often than not, onset “r” is pronounced [ɹ], and “l” is always pronounced [l] or [l̴]. There are a couple of occasions where the subject can be heard correcting an [ɹ] to [l] mix-up: [ʌ̰nˈsænɪ ˈsænɪtəlḭ ˈsanitəɹḭ] “unsani- sanitary- sanitary” and [lˈɹaɪt˺] “right.”

“Str” clusters are sometimes (rarely) pronounced [sɹ] (ex: [ˈdɪsɹɪkt] “district”).

“Goose” words are most often pronounced [ʉ] (ex: [gʉs] “goose”), though sometimes [y] is heard (ex: [tʰy] “to”), or once [u] (ex: [ˈçjuʒ] “huge”).

The subject occasionally drops the rhoticity of vowels preceding “r” codas. This usually occurs in unstressed syllables (ex: [mɔ] “more”).

[ɐ] is often used in place of [ə], though [ə] is also heard.

The subject’s pronunciation of [θ] and [ð] (which are not used in Japanese and can be challenging for Japanese students of English) is largely flawless. On occasion, in quick speech, she does replace [ð] with [d], but this is also commonly seen in many accents of native anglophones.

The subject’s stress assignment is, for the most part, true to what one would expect from a native English speaker, though there are still some words in which the subject assigns equal stress to every syllable.

In codas, stops are often left unreleased, as is standard in colloquial American English.

COMMENTARY BY: Helen Gent

DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 03/10/2016

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