Listen to Liaoning 1, a 19-year-old woman from Liaoning Province, China. Click or tap the triangle-shaped play button to hear the subject.
DATE OF BIRTH (DD/MM/YYYY): 18/10/1991
PLACE OF BIRTH: Liaoning Province
ETHNICITY: Han Chinese
EDUCATION: At the time of the recording, the subject was in her first year at university.
AREA(S) OF RESIDENCE OUTSIDE REPRESENTATIVE REGION FOR LONGER THAN SIX MONTHS:
Subject came to live in Suzhou, Jiangsu, seven months before the date of the recording.
OTHER INFLUENCES ON SPEECH:
There are few other influences. She had no native English-speaking teachers at school and had never been outside her hometown until she came to university in Suzhou seven months ago. She does appear, however, to watch foreign movies and listen to English songs quite frequently, and these may have had some influence. Also, she is an English major but still has had limited exposure to native English-speaking teachers.
RECORDED BY: Bill McCann
DATE OF RECORDING (DD/MM/YYYY): 06/04/2011
PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF SCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A
TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A
DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A
ORTHOGRAPHIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH:
My hometown is located in the northeast of China, Liaoning Province. I love my hometown forever. There are three members in my family: my father, mother and I. I have a beautiful childhood because my parents never press me to do anything. I regard my father as my best(a) friend, and he is the most respons- (ah) respectable person in my life. When I feel despair, he always provides me mental support. I hope that he can be proud of me. I will take pains to make a good life for my parents in the near future.
TRANSCRIBED BY: Bill McCann
DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): 06/04/2011
PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION OF UNSCRIPTED SPEECH: N/A
TRANSCRIBED BY: N/A
DATE OF TRANSCRIPTION (DD/MM/YYYY): N/A
Short readings from the analects of Confucius
The subject now goes on to read the following abstracts from the Analects of Confucius in her own Northeastern dialect of Mandarin. This dialect is spoken in most of Liaoning and is closely related to Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) with generally little variation in lexicon; there are very few tonal changes. The accent is distinctive of the northern Mandarin group, and a comparison with the reading in the Jiangsu 7 sample illustrates the distinguishing features quite nicely. A reading in Putonghua (Mandarin) can be heard on theJiangsu7 sample; notice, for example, the rolled /r/ in the northern dialect.
KEY: A = Mandarin (Simplified); B = Mandarin (Pingyin); C = Dialect (Pingyin); D = English.
孔子: 论语 – Kǒng zǐ : lún yǔ – Kon zi:leng yu – Confucius: Lun Yu
學而第一 – xué ér dì yī – Xué ér dì yī – Chapter One
A: 1-1:- 子曰: 學而時習之、不亦說乎。
B: yī-yī :- zǐ yuē: xué ér shí xí zhī, bù yì yuè hū.
C: yī-yī :- zǐ yuē: xué ér shí xí zhī, bù yì yuè hū.
D: 1-1:- The Master said: Is it not pleasure to learn, and practice what is learned time and again?
A: 1-2:- 有朋自遠方來、不亦樂乎。
B: yī-èr:- yǒu péng zì yuǎn fāng lái, bù yì lè hū.
C: yī-èr:- yǒu péng zì yuǎn fāng lái, bù yì lè hū.
D: 1-2:- Is it not happiness to have friends coming from distant places?
A: 1-3:- 人不知而不慍、不亦君子乎。
B: yī-sān: rén bù zhī ér bù yùn, bù yì jūn zi hū.
C: yī-sān: rén bù zhī ér bù yùn, bù yì jūn zi hū.
D: 1-3:- Is it not virtue for a man to feel no discomposure when others take no note of him?
為政第二 – wéi zhèng dì èr – wéi zhèng dì ér – Chapter two
A: 2-2:- 子曰：「詩三百，一言以蔽之，曰：『思無邪』。
B: èr-èr:- zǐ yuē: shī sān bǎi, yī yán yǐ bì zhī , yuē: sī wú xié.
C: èr-èr:- zǐ yuē: shī sān bǎi, yī yán yǐ bì zhī , yuē: sī wú xié.
D: 2-2:- The Master said: In the Book of Odes there are three hundred poems, but they may be summarized in a single sentence: Think no evil.
A: 2-7:- 子游問孝。子曰：今之孝者，是謂能養。至於犬馬，皆能有養；不敬, 何 以別乎。
B: èr-qī:- zǐ yóu wèn xiào. zǐ yuē: jīn zhī xiào zhě, shì wèi néng yǎng. zhì wū quǎn mǎ, jiē néng yǒu yǎng; bù jìng, hé yǐ bié hū.
C: : èr-qī:- zǐ yóu wèn xiào. zǐ yuē: jīn zhī xiào zhě, shì wèi néng yǎng. zhì wū quǎn mǎ, jiē néng yǒu yǎng; bù jìng, hé yǐ bié hū.
D: 2-7:- Zi You asked what filial piety was. The Master said: Nowadays, providing support for one’s parents is considered filial piety. But dogs and horses can also do this. If there is no respect, what is the difference?
A: 2-10:- 子曰：「視其所以，觀其所由，察其所安。人焉叟哉？人焉叟哉？
B: èr-shí :- zǐ yuē: shì qí suǒ yǐ , guān qí suǒ yóu, chá qí suǒ ān. rén yān sǒu zāi? rén yān sǒu zāi?
C: èr-shí :- zǐ yuē: shì qí suǒ yǐ , guān qí suǒ yóu, chá qí suǒ ān. rén yān sǒu zāi? rén yān sǒu zāi?
D: 2-10:- The Master said: Watch what a man does. Find out his motives. See how he takes his ease. How then can the man hide his true self? How can the man hide his true self?
Liáoníng is located in the southern part of China’s northeast and is often “the Golden Triangle” because of its superior geographical location. It borders the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the south, and North Koreain the southeast, where the border is marked by the Yalu River. The name comes from the Liáo Dynasty, which ruled the area between 907 and 1125, and the word “níng,” which means peace. The modern province was established as Fengtian, in 1907, becoming Liáoníng in 1929. During the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the name reverted to Fengtian, and the present name was restored in 1945. Liáoníng boasts the largest economy of northeast China and has the seventh largest GDP in China.
Historically, Liáoníng was ruled by various Korean and Han Chinese until the Ming Dynasty took control of the area in 1327. Between 1442 and1468, the Ming constructed the Liáoníng Wall to protect China from incursions by the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan in the northwest and the Jianzhou Jurchens (later the Manchu) in the northeast. Although not as well constructed as the Great Wall, it was not seriously breached until the Manchu broke through in the early 17th century as a prelude to the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
The early Manchu capital was outside the wall, in Xingjing in the eastern part of modern Liáoníng; it was gradually moved until it was settled in Shengjing (modern Shenyang) in 1625. When the capital was moved to Beijing in 1644, Shengjing continued as an important regional capital city and retained its status through most of the Qing Dynasty. In the last half of the seventeenth century, the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (especially from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area, and many of the current residents of Liaoning are descended from these seventeenth century settlers.
Liaoning is famous for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period. These include the early “placental” mammal known as Eomaia. Also, the first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus (a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs) and the raptor Sinornithosaurus millenii.
The area of Anshan has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The area remained of little significance, a small city in Liaodong province, overshadowed by neighboring Liaoyang city, until the mid 20th century, when it had become one of the largest producers of iron and steel in Asia.
There are very few of the usual Chinese characteristics in this sample’s English, which is clearly well enunciated.
COMMENTARY BY: Bill McCann
DATE OF COMMENTARY (DD/MM/YYYY): 06/04/2011
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